Optional chaining: ‘?.’

Abhay Jain
2 min readDec 31, 2020

The optional chaining ?. is a safe way to access nested object properties, even if an intermediate property doesn’t exist or you can say “non-existing property” problem.

If a case, when we attempt to get user.address.street, and the user happens to be without an address, we get an error:

let user = {}; // a user without "address" propertyalert(user.address.street); // Error!

That’s the expected result. JavaScript works like this. As user.address is undefined, an attempt to get user.address.street fails with an error.

The obvious solution would be to check the value using if or the conditional operator ?, before accessing its property, like this:

let user = {};alert(user.address ? user.address.street ? user.address.street.name : null : null);

That’s just awful, one may even have problems understanding such code.

Don’t even care to, as there’s a better way to write it, using the && operator:

let user = {}; // user has no addressalert( user.address && user.address.street && user.address.street.name ); // undefined (no error)

AND’ing the whole path to the property ensures that all components exist (if not, the evaluation stops), but also isn’t ideal.

As you can see, property names are still duplicated in the code. E.g. in the code above, user.address appears three times.

That’s why the optional chaining ?. was added to the language. To solve this problem once and for all!

Optional chaining

The optional chaining ?. stops the evaluation if the part before ?. is undefined or null and returns that part.

In other words, value?.prop:

  • is the same as value.prop if value exists,
  • otherwise (when value is undefined/null) it returns undefined.
let user = {}; // user has no address

alert( user?.address?.street ); // undefined (no error)

The code is short and clean, there’s no duplication at all.

If there’s no variable user at all, then user?.anything triggers an error:

// ReferenceError: user is not defined

The variable must be declared (e.g. let/const/var user or as a function parameter). The optional chaining works only for declared variables.


The optional chaining ?. syntax has three forms:

  1. obj?.prop – returns obj.prop if obj exists, otherwise undefined.
  2. obj?.[prop] – returns obj[prop] if obj exists, otherwise undefined.
  3. obj.method?.() – calls obj.method() if obj.method exists, otherwise returns undefined.

A chain of ?. allows to safely access nested properties.

Still, we should apply ?. carefully, only where it’s acceptable that the left part doesn’t exist. So that it won’t hide programming errors from us if they occur.



Abhay Jain

Developer with 3 yrs of industrial experience in developing scalable web applications.